Optimization of Magnetic Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles for Magnetic Heating Applications in Biomedical Technology
in: Nanomaterials (2023)
Using magnetic nanoparticles for extracorporeal magnetic heating applications in biomedical technology allows higher external field amplitudes and thereby the utilization of particles with higher coercivities (HC). In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of high coercivity cobalt ferrite nanoparticles following a wet co-precipitation method. Particles are characterized with magnetometry, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and calorimetric measurements for the determination of their specific absorption rate (SAR). In the first series, CoxFe3xO4 particles were synthesized with x = 1 and a structured variation of synthesis conditions, including those of the used atmosphere (O2 or N2). In the second series, particles with x = 0 to 1 were synthesized to study the influence of the cobalt fraction on the resulting magnetic and structural properties. Crystallite sizes of the resulting particles ranged between 10 and 18 nm, while maximum coercivities at room temperatures of 60 kA/m for synthesis with O2 and 37 kA/m for N2 were reached. Magnetization values at room temperature and 2 T (MRT,2T) up to 60 Am2/kg under N2 for x = 1 can be achieved. Synthesis parameters that lead to the formation of an additional phase when they exceed specific thresholds have been identified. Based on XRD findings, the direct correlation between high-field magnetization, the fraction of this antiferromagnetic byphase and the estimated transition temperature of this byphase, extracted from the Mössbauer spectroscopy series, we were able to attribute this contribution to akageneite. When varying the cobalt fraction x, a non-monotonous correlation of HC and x was found, with a linear increase of HC up to x = 0.8 and a decrease for x > 0.8, while magnetometry and in-field Mössbauer experiments demonstrated a moderate degree of spin canting for all x, yielding high magnetization. SAR values up to 480 W/g (@290 kHz, 69 mT) were measured for immobilized particles with x = 0.3, whit the external field amplitude being the limiting factor due to the high coercivities of our particles.