Vibrational Spectroscopic Investigation of Blood Plasma and Serum by Drop Coating Deposition for Clinical Application
in: International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2021)
In recent decades, vibrational spectroscopic methods such as Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy are widely applied to investigate plasma and serum samples. These methods are combinedwith drop coating deposition techniques to pre-concentrate the biomolecules in the dried droplet to improve the detected vibrational signal. However, most often encountered challenge is the inhomogeneous redistribution of biomolecules due to the coffee-ring effect. In this study, the variation in biomolecule distribution within the dried-sample droplet has been investigated using Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging method. The plasma-sample from healthy donors were investigated to show the spectral differences between the inner and outer-ring region of the dried-sample droplet. Further, the preferred location of deposition of the most abundant protein albumin in the blood during the drying process of the plasma has been illustrated by using deuterated albumin. Subsequently, two patients with different cardiac-related diseases were investigated exemplarily to illustrate the variation in the pattern of plasma and serum biomolecule distribution during the drying process and its impact on patient-stratification. The study shows that a uniform sampling position of the droplet, both at the inner and the outer ring, is necessary for thorough clinical characterization of the patient’s plasma and serum sample using vibrational spectroscopy.