Heavily Doped Zinc Oxide with Plasma Frequencies in the Telecommunication Wavelength Range
in: Advanced Photonics Research (2023)
Heavy and hyper doping of ZnO by a combination of gallium (Ga) ion implantation using a focused ion beam (FIB) system and post-implantation laser annealing is demonstrated. Ion implantation allows for the incorporation of impurities with nearly arbitrary concentrations, and the laser-annealing process enables dopant activation close to or beyond the solid-solubility limit of Ga in ZnO. Heavily doped ZnO:Ga with free-carrier concentrations of _1021 cm_3, resulting in a plasma wavelength of 1.02 ìm, which is substantially shorter than the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 ìm is demonstrated. Thus, this approach enables the control of the plasma frequency of ZnO from the far infrared down to 1.02 ìm, thus, providing a promising plasmonic material for applications in this regime.