Nanoscale Spatiotemporal Diffusion Modes Measured by Simultaneous Confocal and Stimulated Emission Depletion Nanoscopy Imaging
in: Nano Letters (2018)
The diffusion dynamics in the cellular plasma membrane provides crucial insights into the molecular interactions, organization and bioactivity. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy combined with super-resolution stimulated emission depletion nanoscopy (STED-FCS) measures such dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution and reveals nanoscale diffusion characteristics by measuring the molecular diffusion in conventional confocal mode and super-resolved STED mode sequentially. However, to directly link the spatial and the temporal information, a method that simultaneously measures the diffusion in confocal and STED modes is needed. Here, to overcome this problem, we establish an advanced STED-FCS measurement method; line interleaved excitation scanning STED-FCS (LIESS-FCS) which discloses the molecular diffusion modes at different spatial positions with a single measurement. It relies on fast beam-scanning along a line with alternating laser illumination that yields, for each pixel, the apparent diffusion coefficients for two different observation spot sizes (conventional confocal and super-resolved STED). We demonstrate the potential of the LIESS-FCS approach with simulations and experiments on lipid diffusion in model and live cell plasma membranes. We also apply LIESS-FCS to investigate the spatio-temporal organization of GPI-anchored proteins in the plasma membrane of live cells which interestingly show multiple diffusion modes at different spatial positions.