Simple, Fast and Convenient Magnetic Bead-based Sample Preparation for Detecting Viruses via Raman-Spectroscopy

in: (2023)
Pahlow, Susanne; Richard-Lacroix, Marie; Hornung, Franziska; Köse-Vogel, Nilay; Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Hniopek, Julian; Ryabchykov, Oleg; Bocklitz, Thomas W.; Weber, Karina; Ehricht, Ralf; Löffler, Bettina; Deinhardt-Emmer, Stefanie; Popp, Jürgen
We introduce a magnetic bead-based sample preparation scheme for enabling a Raman spectroscopic differentiation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive and negative samples. The beads were functionalized with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor protein, which is used as recognition element to selectively enrich SARS-CoV-2 on the surface of the magnetic beads. Subsequent Raman measurements directly enable discriminating SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative samples. The proposed approach is applicable for other virus species, too, when the specific recognition element is exchanged. Series of Raman spectra were measured on three types of samples, namely SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A H1N1 virus and a negative control. For each sample type, eight independent replicates were considered. All spectra are dominated by the magnetic bead substrate and no obvious differences between sample types are apparent. In order to address the subtle differences in the spectra, we calculated different correlation coefficients, namely the Pearson coefficient and the Normalized Cross Correlation coefficient. By comparing the correlation with the negative control differentiating between SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza A virus is possible. This study provides a first step towards the detection and potential classification of different viruses with the use of conventional Raman spectroscopy.

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