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Characterization on Antibiotic Biocide Resistance Genes and Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus Species Associated with Bovine Mastitis in Rwanda

Antok, Fruzsina Irén; Mayrhofer, Rosa; Marbach, Helene; Masengesho, Jean Claude; Keinprecht, Helga; Nyirimbuga, Vedaste; Fischer, Otto; Lepuschitz, Sarah; Ruppitsch, Werner; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T.; Schwarz, Stefan; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Grunert, Tom; Spergser, Joachim; Loncaric, Igor
in: Antibiotics (2020) 1-1

The present study was conducted from July to August 2018 on milk samples taken at dairy farms in the Northern Province and Kigali District of Rwanda in order to identify Staphylococcus spp. associated with bovine intramammary infection. A total of 161 staphylococcal isolates originating from quarter milk samples of 112 crossbred dairy cattle were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and isolates were examined for the presence of various resistance genes. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were also analyzed for the presence of virulence factors, genotyped by spa typing and further phenotypically subtyped for capsule expression using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Selected S. aureus were characterized using DNA microarray technology, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and wholegenome sequencing. All mecA-positive staphylococci were further genotyped using dru typing. In total, 14 different staphylococcal species were detected, with S. aureus being most prevalent (26.7%), followed by S. xylosus (22.4%) and S. haemolyticus (14.9%). A high number of isolates was resistant to penicillin and tetracycline. Various antimicrobial and biocide resistance genes were detected. Among S. aureus, the Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, as well as bovine leukocidin (LukM/LukF-P83) genes, were detected in two and three isolates, respectively, of which two also carried the toxic shock syndrome toxin gene tsst-1 bovine variant. t1236 was the predominant spa type. FTIR-based capsule serotyping revealed a high prevalence of non-encapsulated S. aureus isolates (89.5%). The majority of the selected S. aureus isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC) 97.

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