Coherent Quantum Network of Superconducting Qubits as a Highly Sensitive Detector of Microwave Photons for Searching of Galactic Axions

in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (2023)
Gatti, Claudio; Affronte, Marco; Bonizzoni, Claudio; Balanov, A.; Brida, G.; Chiariello, Fabio; Chikhi, Nassim; Coda, Gianluca; D'Elia, Alessandro; Di Gioacchino, Daniele; Enrico, E.; Eremin, Ilya; Ejrnaes, Mikkel; Ilichev, Evgeni; Fasolo, L.; Fistul, Mikhail V.; Ghirri, Alberto; Greco, A.; Ligi, Carlo; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Meda, A.; Navez, P.; Oelsner, Gregor; Rajteri, M.; Rettaroli, Alessio; Ruggiero, Berardo; Savel'ev, Sergei; Silvestrini, Paolo; Tocci, Simone; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Vanacore, Paolo; Zagoskin, Alexandre M.; Lisitskiy, Mikhail
We propose a novel approach to detect a low power microwave signal with a frequency of the order of several GHz based on a coherent collective response of quantum states occurring in a superconducting qubits network (SQN). An SQN composes of a large number of superconducting qubits embedded in a lowdissipative superconducting resonator. Our theory predicts that an SQN interacting with the off-resonance microwave radiation, demonstrates the collective alternating current Stark effect that can be measured even in the limit of single photon counting. A design of the layout of three terminals SQN detectors containing 10 flux qubits weakly coupled to a low-dissipative R-resonator and T-transmission line was developed. The samples were fabricated by Al-based technology with Nb resonator. The SQN detector was tested in terms of microwave measurements of scattering parameters and two-tone spectroscopy. A substantial shift of the frequency position of the transmission coefficient drop induced by a second tone pump signal was observed, and this effect clearly manifests a nonlinear multiphoton interaction between the second-tone microwave pump signal and an array of qubits.

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